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Password Policies

Passwords are a historical asset, part of most authentication systems, and are the number one target of attackers.

Quite often some service leaks its users' database, and despite the leak of email addresses and other personal data, the biggest concern are passwords. Why? Because passwords are not easy to manage and remember. Users not only tend to use weak passwords (e.g. "123456") they can easily remember, they can also re-use the same password for different services.

If your application sign-in requires a password, the best you can do is to "enforce password complexity requirements, (...) requiring the use of alphabetic as well as numeric and/or special characters)". Password length should also be enforced: "eight characters is commonly used, but 16 is better or consider the use of multi-word pass phrases".

Of course, none of the previous guidelines will prevent users from re-using the same password. The best you can do to reduce this bad practice is to "enforce password changes", and preventing password re-use. "Critical systems may require more frequent changes. The time between resets must be administratively controlled".


Even if you're not applying any extra password policy, users still need to be able to reset their password. Such a mechanism is as critical as signup or sign-in, and you're encouraged to follow the best practices to be sure your system does not disclose sensitive data and become compromised.

"Passwords should be at least one day old before they can be changed". This way you'll prevent attacks on password re-use. Whenever using "email based resets, only send email to a pre-registered address with a temporary link/password" which should have a short expiration period.

Whenever a password reset is requested, the user should be notified. The same way, temporary passwords should be changed on the next usage.

A common practice for password reset is the "Security Question", whose answer was previously configured by the account owner. "Password reset questions should support sufficiently random answers": asking for "Favorite Book?" may lead to "The Bible" which makes this reset questions undesirable in most cases.